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Disclaimer : This page is kept for historical purposes, but the content is no longer actively updated. Right : An artist's concept depicts a flare evolving into a Coronal Mass Ejection. Color-color diagrams may help scientists predict which flares will evolve into potentially dangerous Coronal Mass Ejections CMEsand which ones will fade back into the solar atmosphere. Links to. This finding, presented today at the Centennial Meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Chicago, could yield new insight into how particles may be accelerated to high energies in solar flares.

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It could become especially important over the next few years as the Sun's activity peaks during solar maximum.

These "gross properties" are like having a basic understanding that people have two arms, two legs, and walk upright. It's when you look more closely that people begin to take on different characteristics, like fingerprints. The same is apparently true with flares, but only to a point. Are they all different? Are there 'classes' of flares? This is what we're after. Solar flares are tremendous explosions on the surface and in the atmosphere of the Sun. In a matter of just a few seconds they heat material to many millions of degrees and release as much energy as a billion megatons of TNT.

They occur near sunspots, usually along the dividing line neutral line between areas of oppositely directed magnetic fields, where the fields have become stressed sheared.

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In some cases, these flares are associated with eruptions of the Sun's matter into space called "coronal mass ejections. In a solar flare, the released magnetic energy accelerates particles - electrons and protons - to extremely high energies. When these particles crash into the solar atmosphere, their kinetic energy is converted into X-rays and gamma-rays that are detected by orbiting satellites. The spectral evolution of a flare can therefore be thought of as a direct fingerprint of the mechanism that accelerates particles to high energies in the Sun and the type of target they interact with.

As a first step to tell whether a flare's evolving X-ray energy distribution carries clues about its cause, Newton borrowed a technique called "color-color diagrams" that was developed for studying X-ray binary stars. Related Stories: May "Cool" microflares could be solar hot spots - One longstanding mystery of the sun is why its outer atmosphere - the corona - is times hotter than its surface. Now, a trio of scientists says it's because the corona is heated by incessant mini-explosions, called microflares.

March 9: Finding the 'smoking gun' before it fires.

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Physicists discover a new tool for predicting solar eruptions. March 3: Future telescope could shatter solar high-resolution barrier January 8: The Mysterious Fingerprints of Gamma-Ray Bursts Scientists apply color-color diagrams to the study of gamma-ray bursts spectral evolution. They're completely model-independent, empirical tools for examining what's going on in the flare.Analysis of major and trace elements typically takes only a few seconds, allowing for numerous analyses to be performed over the course of a single field session.

Data can be displayed on a built-in screen or a personal field computer for most devices, and can be exported for further interpretation. EDX spectrometers are used in portable XRF devices because of their smaller size and simpler design compared to the WDS spectrometers used in laboratory instruments.

Miniature X-ray tubes or gamma ray sources can also be used with EDX spectrometers, making them cheaper and allowing for miniaturization that enhances portability most commercial handheld XRF devices weigh less than 2 kg. Despite these advantages, XRF devices that utilize EDX spectrometers are less accurate than laboratory XRF analyzers, due to their lower resolution and problems with lower count rates and long dead-times.

This being the case, laboratory XRF instruments should be used for high precision bulk elemental analysis. Potential Pitfalls For the results of any single handheld XRF analysis to be considered representative of the rock, mineral, or sediment under investigation, specific site selection on the sample and an awareness of the spot size analyzed by the instrument are critical. For example, the bulk chemistry of a rock consisting of orthoclase, biotite, and quartz might be measured to contain only K, Al, and Si if a large orthoclase crystal were measured, whereas a different spot on the same sample with representative proportions of all three minerals would also contain Mg and Fe.

Failure to account for this during fieldwork can lead to quality control issues throughout a dataset. Toggle navigation. Search open E I. Other definitions: Wikipedia Reegle. Traditional lab-based XRF analysis is one of the most commonly used methods for measurement of major and trace elements.

The first hand-held XRF analyzer was commercially released inallowing for these analyses to be performed rapidly in the field.

Devices are intuitive and easy to use, generally resembling a gun that is placed in contact with the material of interest. XRF analysis is performed by pulling a trigger, and is typically completed within a few seconds.

Photo from the Olympus Corporation merchant website. The given value was not understood. For the results of any single handheld XRF analysis to be considered representative of the rock, mineral, or sediment under investigation, specific site selection on the sample and an awareness of the spot size analyzed by the instrument are critical.

Additional limitations of handheld XRF analysis include: The elements detectable by XRF analysis are typically limited to the range between Magnesium and Uranium for most commercially available instruments. XRF analysis cannot distinguish between isotopes of the same element, so additional analysis using other instruments is necessary if this type of data is desired.

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XRF analysis cannot distinguish ions of an element in different valence states e. Relatively large sample sizes are needed for analysis, usually in excess of 1 gram. No exploration activities found. Contact needs updating. Out of date content. Broken link.You must log in to edit PetroWiki. Help with editing. Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment.

PH300 Peak Hold Detector

SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. More information. The radioactivity of rocks has been used for many years to help derive lithologies. Natural occurring radioactive materials NORM include the elements uranium, thorium, potassium, radium, and radon, along with the minerals that contain them. There is usually no fundamental connection between different rock types and measured gamma ray intensity, but there exists a strong general correlation between the radioactive isotope content and mineralogy.

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Logging tools have been developed to read the gamma rays emitted by these elements and interpret lithology from the information collected. Conceptually, the simplest tools are the passive gamma ray devices. There is no source to deal with and generally only one detector.

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They range from simple gross gamma ray counters used for shale and bed-boundary delineation to spectral devices used in clay typing and geochemical logging.

Despite their apparent simplicity, borehole and environmental effects, such as naturally radioactive potassium in drilling mud, can easily confound them. In Fig. Evaporites NaCl salt, anhydrites and coals typically have low levels.

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In other rocks, the general trend toward higher radioactivity with increased shale content is apparent. At the high radioactivity extreme are organic-rich shales and potash KCl.

These plotted values can include beta as well as gamma radioactivity collected with a Geiger counter.

Modern techniques concentrate on gamma ray detection. The primary radioactive isotopes in rocks are potassium and the isotope series associated with the disintegration of uranium and thorium. Potassium K 40 produces a single gamma ray of energy of 1. On the other hand, both thorium Th and uranium U break down to form a sequence of radioactive daughter products.Arrange students in groups of 2. Give students 2 minutes of quiet work time and then 1 minute to compare their responses with their partner.

Given the limited time, it may not be possible for students to create examples for each of the values in the second question. Tell students to try to at least find 1 or 2 examples and then to find others as time allows. Follow with a whole-class discussion. Record and display their responses for all to see.

If time is limited, consider displaying the completed table for all to see and discussing any questions or disagreements. Then, invite students to share their examples for the final question. If students struggle to find something that could be described by each value, consider sharing some of the following examples:.

Notice students who choose different, yet correct, diagrams for the first and last problems. Display the following diagram for all to see. Pause for quiet think time after asking each question about the diagram. Ask students to explain their thinking. Here are some questions to consider:.

Expand Image. Figure A, 2 large squares each composed of blocks, 10 by 10, 4 small squares each 1 block. Figure B, 2 large squares each composed of blocks, 10 by 10, 4 rectangles composed of 10 blocks, 10 by 1. Figure C, 2 rectangles composed of 10 blocks, 10 by 1, 4 small squares, each 1 block.

Some students may think that the small square must always represent one unit. Explain to these students that, as in the launch, the small square might represent 10 units, 0. Some students may have trouble writing the value of expressions that involve powers of 10, especially if they involve negative exponents.Depending on the end-use application, the basic requirements, as given below, have to be satisfied by the Cryocooler.

Cryocooler may be classified as follows :. Heat exchangers and regenerators. Recuperative Heat exchanger. Regenerative Heat exchanger. The idea of a pulse tube was first proposed by Gifford and Longsworth in The effects of sudden expansion and release of refrigerant gas are employed to get a refrigeration effect. Refer to the figure for the circuit of pulse-tube refrigeration.

Pulse tube cooler is one kind of cryocooler. The use of pulse tube has been propelled by many requirements of modern-day applications such as adequate refrigeration at specified temperature with low power input, long lifetime, reliable and maintenance-free operation with minimum vibration and noise, compactness, and lightweight.

Basic Pulse Tube Refrigerator B. Orifice Pulse Tube Refrigerator C. Inertance Tube Pulse Tube Refrigerator. The apparatus consists of a high-pressure gas source, which supplies gas at a temperature equal to the ambient temperature to the base of the pulse tube. Now compressed air is supplied from the air compressor. The compressed air enters the vortex tube through a valve. Further, compressed gas is allowed to enter the pulse tube.

Now, the compressed gas acts on an imaginary piston i. Thus, the gas inside the pulse tube gets compressed resulting in an increase in the temperature in the pulse tube from top to bottom. The maximum temperature is at the base.

A coolant is circulated to remove heat from the gas, which is now compressed at the base. The coolant rejects heat absorbed to a coolant tank and is pumped back to the pulse tube. Due to cooling by the coolant, gas temperature reduces.

Now, the supply of high-pressure gas is stopped and the inlet valve is closed. The exhaust valve now opens and gas is exhausted lowering temperature inside the tube.The unit also has the lowest Droop Rate of the held voltage available and consumes less than 36 mW of power in quiescent mode.

Laboratory and commercial applications include nuclear physics; portable instrumentation; nuclear monitoring; aerospace; particle, gamma and x-ray imaging; medical and nuclear electronics; and electro-optical systems.

The PH is a peak-hold device, designed to track an analog input pulse and keep the maximum amplitude as a peak voltage on a hold capacitor.

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Major functional elements are identified in the functional diagram above. An innovative boot-strap circuit in the input stage of the output buffer amplifier, minimizes the droop error which occurs during periods of long peak-hold duration.

Inputs to the IN terminal are gated through a linear gate gate inputwhich is controlled by a TTL compatible logic signal. When the gate is open gate highthe input signal is sensed by the error amplifier.

When the gate is closed gate lowthe input to the error amplifier is grounded and the input signal does not have any effect on the output of PH During the rise time of the input signal, the hold capacitor is charged through a charging diode and a hold resistor.

gamma ray diagram diagram base website ray diagram

For the PH, this mode of operation is referred to as the charging mode. The device goes into hold mode as soon as the input reaches Vmax and starts to decay. This state can be terminated by discharging the hold capacitor. When the circuitry to accomplish this is enabled, the PH is placed in discharge mode.

A special case of the discharge mode is the tracking mode. Additional information on each of these operational modes follows. The hold capacitor is charged during the rise time of the input signal.

gamma ray diagram diagram base website ray diagram

The rise time of the input pulses can be as short as ns. When the PH is in charging mode, negative feedback is applied to the amplifier through the high impedance output buffer. Under this condition, the output voltage follows the input signal and the peak detector logic output is in the inactive state. The feedback circuit brakes immediately after the input goes through a maximum level and starts decaying. The PH then enters hold mode. In this mode, the charging diode is reverse biased and the voltage across the hold capacitor is held equal to Vmax.

The peak-detector logic output is in the active state. The leakage currents of the components connected to the hold capacitor causes it to discharge. The rate of this discharge is the droop rate of the PHAfter you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play.

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Get the plugin now. Toggle navigation. Help Preferences Sign up Log in. To view this presentation, you'll need to allow Flash. Click to allow Flash After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. View by Category Toggle navigation. Products Sold on our sister site CrystalGraphics. Title: Ray Diagrams.

Description: Ray Diagrams Convex Lens Ray Diagrams Lenses To draw ray diagrams for lenses use two of the following rays: From the tip of the object horizontally toward the lens Tags: diagrams lens magnification ray. Latest Highest Rated. Title: Ray Diagrams 1 Ray Diagrams Convex Lens 2 Ray Diagrams Lenses To draw ray diagrams for lenses use two of the following rays From the tip of the object horizontally toward the lens, refracting through the focal point.

From the tip of the object straight through the center of the lens. From the tip of the object through the opposite f, refracting horizontally. Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow.

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